giraffeinatree:

The beautiful Nicobar by Sue Demtriou

(via jayalice)


paleopedia:

The Jehol wing, Jeholopterus (2002)
Phylum : ChordataClass : ReptiliaOrder : PterosauriaFamily : AnurognathidaeGenus : JeholopterusSpecies : J. ninchengensis
Middle/late Jurassic (168 - 152 Ma)
1 m wingspan and 2 kg
Asia
The type species is based on holotype IVPP V12705, a nearly complete specimen from the Daohugou beds of Ningcheng County in the Neimongol (Inner Mongolia) Autonomous Region of China. The specimen is crushed into a slab and counterslab pair, so that parts of the specimen are preserved on one side of a split stone and some on the other. This includes exquisite preservation of carbonized skin fibers and, arguably, “hair” or “protofeathers.” The fibers are preserved around the body of the specimen in a “halo.” Wing tissue is preserved, though its extent is debatable, including the exact points of attachment to the legs (or if it attached to the legs at all). In 2009 Alexander Kellner published a study reporting the presence of three layers of fibres in the wing, allowing the animal to precisely adapt the wing profile.
As an anurognathid, Jeholopterus shows the skull form typical for this group, being wider than it was long (28 mm), with a very broad mouth. Most teeth are small and peg-like, but some are longer and recurved. The neck was short with seven er eight cervical vertebrae. Twelve or thirteen dorsal vertebrae are present and three sacrals. There are five pairs of belly ribs. The tail vertebrae have not been preserved. The describers argue that Jeholopterus had a short tail, a feature seen in other anurognathids but unusual for “rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaurs that typically have a long tail. Wang et al. cited the presence of a fringe of hair in the region of the tail to infer the presence of a short tail. However, a subsequent study by Dalla Vecchia argued that gleaning any information about the tail is impossible, given that the tail is “totally absent” in the fossil.

The wing bones are robust. The metacarpals are very short. A short pteroid, supporting a propatagium, is pointing towards the body. The hand claws are long and curved. The wings of Jeholopterus show evidence that they attached to the ankle, according to Wang et al.. They are relatively elongated with a wingspan of ninety centimetres.
The legs are short but robust. The toes bear well-developed curved claws, but these are not as long as the hand claws. The fifth toe is elongated, according to the authors supporting a membrane between the legs, the uropatagium.
Though he never examined the fossil himself, advertising artist David Peters has popularized his idiosyncratic opinions about Jeholopterus and other pterosaurs widely on the internet. In general he finds and illustrates hosts of ornamental features and even multiple embryos although no other researchers have ever confirmed his findings. By manipulating downloaded images of Jeholopterus in the computer art program Photoshop, David Peters (2003) reported that he discovered an unusual suite of soft-tissue remains, including a horse-like tail Peters speculated may have been used as a fly sweeper/distractor, as well as a long fly lure (similar to that of the anglerfish) protruding from the head, and a fin or series of fins along the back. Peters also reported that he had found “rattlesnake-like fangs”, and these, along with what he described as a rattle-snake-like mandible, buttressed palate, “surgically sharp” unguals, robust limbs and other characters suggested that Jeholopterus was a vampire pterosaur adapted to plunging fangs into tough hide, then rotating the skull forward locking the fangs beneath the hide to improve adhesion. The small teeth of the lower jaw would not have penetrated but squeezed the wound like a pliers. Prominent pterosaur researcher Chris Bennett has described Peters’ findings as “fantasy” and has vehemently denounced his methodology, as has palaeozoologist Darren Naish.

paleopedia:

The Jehol wing, Jeholopterus (2002)

Phylum : Chordata
Class : Reptilia
Order : Pterosauria
Family : Anurognathidae
Genus : Jeholopterus
Species : J. ninchengensis

  • Middle/late Jurassic (168 - 152 Ma)
  • 1 m wingspan and 2 kg
  • Asia

The type species is based on holotype IVPP V12705, a nearly complete specimen from the Daohugou beds of Ningcheng County in the Neimongol (Inner Mongolia) Autonomous Region of China. The specimen is crushed into a slab and counterslab pair, so that parts of the specimen are preserved on one side of a split stone and some on the other. This includes exquisite preservation of carbonized skin fibers and, arguably, “hair” or “protofeathers.” The fibers are preserved around the body of the specimen in a “halo.” Wing tissue is preserved, though its extent is debatable, including the exact points of attachment to the legs (or if it attached to the legs at all). In 2009 Alexander Kellner published a study reporting the presence of three layers of fibres in the wing, allowing the animal to precisely adapt the wing profile.

As an anurognathid, Jeholopterus shows the skull form typical for this group, being wider than it was long (28 mm), with a very broad mouth. Most teeth are small and peg-like, but some are longer and recurved. The neck was short with seven er eight cervical vertebrae. Twelve or thirteen dorsal vertebrae are present and three sacrals. There are five pairs of belly ribs. The tail vertebrae have not been preserved. The describers argue that Jeholopterus had a short tail, a feature seen in other anurognathids but unusual for “rhamphorhynchoid" pterosaurs that typically have a long tail. Wang et al. cited the presence of a fringe of hair in the region of the tail to infer the presence of a short tail. However, a subsequent study by Dalla Vecchia argued that gleaning any information about the tail is impossible, given that the tail is “totally absent” in the fossil.

The wing bones are robust. The metacarpals are very short. A short pteroid, supporting a propatagium, is pointing towards the body. The hand claws are long and curved. The wings of Jeholopterus show evidence that they attached to the ankle, according to Wang et al.. They are relatively elongated with a wingspan of ninety centimetres.

The legs are short but robust. The toes bear well-developed curved claws, but these are not as long as the hand claws. The fifth toe is elongated, according to the authors supporting a membrane between the legs, the uropatagium.

Though he never examined the fossil himself, advertising artist David Peters has popularized his idiosyncratic opinions about Jeholopterus and other pterosaurs widely on the internet. In general he finds and illustrates hosts of ornamental features and even multiple embryos although no other researchers have ever confirmed his findings. By manipulating downloaded images of Jeholopterus in the computer art program Photoshop, David Peters (2003) reported that he discovered an unusual suite of soft-tissue remains, including a horse-like tail Peters speculated may have been used as a fly sweeper/distractor, as well as a long fly lure (similar to that of the anglerfish) protruding from the head, and a fin or series of fins along the back. Peters also reported that he had found “rattlesnake-like fangs”, and these, along with what he described as a rattle-snake-like mandible, buttressed palate, “surgically sharp” unguals, robust limbs and other characters suggested that Jeholopterus was a vampire pterosaur adapted to plunging fangs into tough hide, then rotating the skull forward locking the fangs beneath the hide to improve adhesion. The small teeth of the lower jaw would not have penetrated but squeezed the wound like a pliers. Prominent pterosaur researcher Chris Bennett has described Peters’ findings as “fantasy” and has vehemently denounced his methodology, as has palaeozoologist Darren Naish.

(via scientificillustration)


ucsdhealthsciences:

False-color scanning electron micrograph of artery containing red blood cells.
Blood thicker than oughter
One in three Americans – or roughly 68 million people – have hypertension or high blood pressure. The vast majority either don’t know they have it, or don’t have it under control.
They should. Hypertension, which essentially means blood pressure within arteries is higher than normal, forcing the heart to work harder than normal to push blood through the body’s circulatory system, is a major risk factor stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attacks), heart failure, aneurysms, peripheral arterial disease and a cause of chronic kidney disease.
Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure is associated with a shortened life expectancy.
Much is known about how to remedy the situation. Lifestyle changes can do a lot: Maintaining a healthy body weight, getting regular exercise, managing stress, limiting alcohol consumption, not smoking and eating a healthy diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol and salt.
Much less is known about the fundamental mechanics of hypertension. Indeed, 90 to 95 percent of hypertension cases are categorized as “primary,” meaning there is no obvious underlying cause.
A little bit of hypertension’s mystery, however, may have been stripped away in a new paper by researchers at the UC San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego Supercomputer Center and UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center.
Writing in the journal Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, lead author Igor F. Tsigelny, PhD, and colleagues describe designing new compounds that mimic naturally occurring molecules in the body that regulate blood pressure. The most promising of these may provide the key to controlling hypertension by switching off the signaling pathways that lead to the condition. You can read the whole news release here.

ucsdhealthsciences:

False-color scanning electron micrograph of artery containing red blood cells.

Blood thicker than oughter

One in three Americans – or roughly 68 million people – have hypertension or high blood pressure. The vast majority either don’t know they have it, or don’t have it under control.

They should. Hypertension, which essentially means blood pressure within arteries is higher than normal, forcing the heart to work harder than normal to push blood through the body’s circulatory system, is a major risk factor stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attacks), heart failure, aneurysms, peripheral arterial disease and a cause of chronic kidney disease.

Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure is associated with a shortened life expectancy.

Much is known about how to remedy the situation. Lifestyle changes can do a lot: Maintaining a healthy body weight, getting regular exercise, managing stress, limiting alcohol consumption, not smoking and eating a healthy diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol and salt.

Much less is known about the fundamental mechanics of hypertension. Indeed, 90 to 95 percent of hypertension cases are categorized as “primary,” meaning there is no obvious underlying cause.

A little bit of hypertension’s mystery, however, may have been stripped away in a new paper by researchers at the UC San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego Supercomputer Center and UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center.

Writing in the journal Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, lead author Igor F. Tsigelny, PhD, and colleagues describe designing new compounds that mimic naturally occurring molecules in the body that regulate blood pressure. The most promising of these may provide the key to controlling hypertension by switching off the signaling pathways that lead to the condition. You can read the whole news release here.


libraryjournal:

Behind Closed Doors on Long Island | Memoir

Dylan told us all that “everything is gonna be diff’rent when I paint my masterpiece.” The belief that things could be different, even if they weren’t going to be perfect, carried many of this month’s memoirists through very trying times. Masterpieces are not always on canvas: here we glimpse families, houses, and careers that are themselves real works of art.

Coincidentally, half of this month’s memoirs deal with growing up on Long Island. The circumstances described range from apparently idyllic to squalor—you just never know what’s going on in the house next door, do you?

LJ memoir columnist (and Long Island resident) Therese Nielsen tackles memoirs about what goes on behind closed doors.




libraryjournal:

Heaven, Hell, and Growing Up | What We’re Reading

This week, Library Journal and School Library Journal staff are reading books that harken back to childhood, whether picking up a much loved favorite or a new book about growing up. Stephanie has reported a lot of laughing on the subway with her villainous book, and I’m reading about about future heavens and hells. Meredith, meanwhile, is still reading The Atlas of New Librarianship.


Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology Paper Endorsed by Editor in Chief

libertasacademica:

Editor in Chief, William C S Cho, of Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology, has awarded an endorsement to the article Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Relapsed Small Cell Lung Cancer, stating: An updated review on the targeted therapies of non-small cell lung cancer.”. Download the article here


kenobi-wan-obi:


Candle in the Dark

Saturn’s rings cut across an eerie scene that is ruled by Titan’s luminous crescent and globe-encircling haze, broken by the small moon Enceladus, whose icy jets are dimly visible at its south pole.
The scattered light around planet-sized Titan (5,150 kilometers, or 3,200 miles across) makes the moon’s solid surface visible in silhouette. Enceladus (505 kilometers, or 314 miles across) enjoys far clearer skies than its giant sibling moon.
This view shows the unlit side of Saturn’s rings.

kenobi-wan-obi:

Candle in the Dark

Saturn’s rings cut across an eerie scene that is ruled by Titan’s luminous crescent and globe-encircling haze, broken by the small moon Enceladus, whose icy jets are dimly visible at its south pole.

The scattered light around planet-sized Titan (5,150 kilometers, or 3,200 miles across) makes the moon’s solid surface visible in silhouette. Enceladus (505 kilometers, or 314 miles across) enjoys far clearer skies than its giant sibling moon.

This view shows the unlit side of Saturn’s rings.


astronomy-to-zoology:

Marsupial Lion (Thylacoleo carnifex)

…a extinct species of diprotodont marsupial that lived in Australia from the early to the late Pleistocene. Like actual lions T.carnifex was probably an ambush predator and fed on megafauna like Procoptodon and Sthenurus. However it was not an apex predator as it shared a range with the 20ft long goanna Megalania. The marsupial lion was a highly specialized predator as it possessed unique teeth that were similar to canines, they also had huge blade-like premolars on either side of their jaws. This combined with exceptionally large jaw muscles gave the marsupial lion an extremely powerful bite. A 100kg individual would have a bite comparable to a 250kg African lion and it could kill a large animal in less than a minute compared to a lion which would take 15 minutes to kill a large catch.

Phylogeny

Animalia-Chordata-Mammalia-Marsupialia-Diprotodontia-Thylacoleonidae-Thylacoleo-T.carnifex

Images: Nobu Tamura and Karora

(via rhamphotheca)


astronomy-to-zoology:

"Panda Ant" (Euspinolia militaris)

…is not an ant but a wingless wasp of the family Mutillidae (velvet ‘ants’). E.militaris was collected in Chile ‘recently’ and not much is know about its biology and ecology. However, it probably has a painful sting and its young probably are ectoparasitoids of other insects.

Phylogeny

Animalia-Arthropoda-Insecta-Hymenoptera-Mutillidae-Euspinolia-E.militaris

Image(s): Christian Lukhaup


Bersyukurlah di Indonesia

Di Indonesia, Pelayanan Kesehatan Semudah di Surga

Banyak pasien yang mengeluh ketika antri di ruang praktek dokter, apalagi dokter spesialis. Pernahkah pasien berpikir, bahwa pasien hanya perlu MENUNGGU beberapa menit atau beberapa jam, sementara dokter BEKERJA berjam-jam melayani pasien petama hingga habis, tak jarang sampai dini hari baru bisa beristirahat. Padahal di negara lain, antri di tempat praktek dokter adalah hal yang termudah.

Pengalaman penulis di Australia, sebelum bertemu dokter di tempat prakteknya, pasien harus janjian dulu lewat resepsionis. Terkadang dokternya sudah “fully booked” dan pasien harus menunggu hingga keesokan harinya. Mau masuk UGD langsung supaya lebih cepat mendapat pertolongan? Tunggu dulu. Jika datang ke UGD dengan penyakit ringan, bisa jadi menginap di ruang tunggu dan baru bertemu dokter UGD hari berikutnya. Belum lagi biaya konsultasi dokter UGD yang 5 kali lipat biaya konsultasi dokter umum. Mau ke spesialis? Harus dapat rujukan dari dokter umum. Pun, tidak bisa jadi pasien abadi di praktek spesialis. Setelah kebutuhan spesialistiknya hilang, dokter spesialis akan mengembalikan ke dokter umum.

Tapi kan banyak pasien miskin di Indonesia? Oh, jangan kuatir. Sudah dipikirkan oleh para elite politik. Istilah “pengobatan gratis” tak bosan-bosannya menjadi slogan kampanye yang memikat. Justru penulis lebih kuatir pada dokter dan tenaga kesehatan lain. Selain mendapat kompensasi yang tak sebanding dengan risiko, mereka menjadi “miskin waktu”. Beban kerja dan tanggung jawab moral menjadikan mereka kekurangan waktu untuk keluarga dan untuk diri sendiri.

Ketika budaya “one stop shopping” menyentuh praktek dokter, praktek bersama menjadi trend di setiap daerah di Indonesia. Kolaborasi beberapa dokter spesialis lengkap dengan laboratorium, radiologi dan apotik di satu tempat menjadikan pelayanan kesehatan lebih cepat, mudah dan nyaman bagi pasien.

Pengalaman menarik penulis dapatkan ketika hamil putri kedua (tahun 2013), di Australia. Dugaan adanya keguguran (abortus imminens) membuat dokter umum merujuk penulis ke UGD rumah sakit terdekat. Saking lamanya menunggu dokter UGD, perawat memperbolehkan penulis pergi ke tempat lain dan nanti akan dihubungi ketika dokter tersedia. Setelah lebih dari satu jam menunggu di tempat lain dan tidak ada telpon dari UGD, penulis kembali antri di UGD dan akhirnya bisa bertemu dokter meski tidak mendapat bed. Jadi dokter melakukan anamnesis dan pemeriksaan di sofa. Biaya konsultasi senilai lebih dari 3 juta rupiah, ditambah biaya periksa darah dan urine. Ketika penulis minta pemeriksaan USG, dokter menyarankan untuk USG di laboratorium swasta supaya lebih cepat. Jadilah penulis kembali ke dokter umum dan minta rujukan untuk periksa USG. Benarkah lebih cepat? Kembali penulis bikin janji lewat resepsionis di tiga laboratorium yang berbeda. Alhamdulillah biaya USG cukup “murah”, sepertiga hingga setengah dari biaya konsultasi dokter UGD. Sudah? Eits, belum happy ending. Jadwal terdekat untuk USG adalah 3 minggu kemudian dan setelah periksa USG harus kembali ke dokter umum untuk konsultasi hasil USG. Total waktu yang diperlukan untuk mendiagnosis keguguran bisa lebih dari sebulan.

Bandingkan dengan pengalaman penulis ketika hamil putri pertama (tahun 2007), di Indonesia. Dengan keluhan yang sama, abortus imminens, hanya perlu waktu 1 jam untuk bertemu dokter spesialis, periksa USG dan mendapat obat; semuanya dikerjakan di satu tempat dengan biaya kurang dari 100 ribu rupiah.

Jadi, masih mau ngeluh kalo antri dokter? Semoga tidak yaa…

Sumber: kompasiana, penulis: Tri Susilowati ( Peneliti yg sedang melanjutkan Study doktoral (S3) nya di Australia).

*mengeluh itu terkadang wajar, namun akan menjadi lbh baik jika kita pandai bersyukur. Memandang sesuatu hal jg ada baiknya tdk hanya dari sisi yg dianggap negatif saja, tp rasa syukur akan membuat kt lbh pandai utk selalu berpikiran positif pd persoalan yg kt hadapi.


Royal baby is on the way

usatoday:

Clarence House, the official representatives of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, tweeted  "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge has been admitted to St. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, London in the early stages of labour." We’re following the story as it develops: http://usat.ly/14wURDT